Fan fiction archives

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A fan fiction archive is a web location where fan fiction stories exist in isolation from other materials. An archive may be a seperate page on an author's personal site. It may be a larger archive with hundreds of pages containing thousands of stories. It might be a part of a larger fan site. Some archives contain lists of links to stories located off site. Some host their materials on their site.

Historical definitions

The following definition dates to May 2008 in media fandom:

Archive -- a collection of stories in one easy-to-browse location. Major fandom archives often host thousands of stories of every imaginable variety. [1]

Archiving Founding Dates

Below is a partial timeline of fan fiction archive dates.

1990

1991

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Archive Funding

The vast majority of fan fiction archives are small. They have less than a thousand users and fewer than ten thousand stories. Because of this, these archives rarely have to worry about funding issues that are associated with larger sites. The archives are largely paid for out of pocket by the archivists. In some cases, this is supplemented by Cafe Press shops, appeals for donations, Amazon affiliate programs and GoogleAds. This latter is the case for archives like Yuletide.

The larger an archive becomes, the more custom scripting involved, the more money a site takes to operate. On that large of a scale, donation models for archive maintaining has generally been a complete failure.

It would not be a fair assessment to characterize fan fiction archives as non-profits. While archives may not generate money, non-profit refers to a specific tax status which provides certain legal protections. Most archives operate as sole proprietorships in terms of money and in the eyes of the law. A sole proprietorship is not a non-profit.

AdultFanFiction.Net

AdultFanFiction.Net originally tried to donation only model coupled with paying for costs of archiving out of pocket. It is currently being funded by donations and banner advertisers.

FanDomination.Net

The site was orginally paid for out of pocket by Michela Ecks. For a while, the site had a number of people giving donations to support the site, used Amazon affiliated and CafePress. These forms of archive generating revenue never fully funded the site, which cost roughly $150 a month. Given that, Michela Ecks was paying for the site out of her own pocket. Shortly after she was cut off from paying the site by Jim, Jimmy Kuhn eventually added Google Ads to the site. Google Ads was not happy with the site's content and also accused the site of false clicking. Because of this, FanDomination.Net switched to adverts provided by Yahoo. The advertising barely covers the costs of server space, space that is offered at a discounted price because Jim used to work for the company providing the space.

FanFiction.Net

The site was originally hosted on a server provided by Xing Li's employer. When costs for the bandwidth became excessive, FanFiction.Net offered paid accounts. These were not popular, and fandom was upset with the idea of an archive trying to profit from fan fiction. Because of the failure of that model, FanFiction.Net eventually switched to advertisements.

FanWorks.Org

The server space for FanWorks.Org is provided to Joe for free by server administrator who wanted such an archive on his server. As the archive does not drain server resources, there have not been many funding issues.

Fiction Alley

Fiction Alley is funded in a variety of ways including the sale of Fiction Alley branded merchandise on Cafe Press, Amazon affiliates, user donations and out of pocket by people who run the site. The site incorporated as a non-profit for tax and liability reasons. They have never made enough money where their income sources have needed to be publicly available.

LiveJournal

When LiveJournal first started offering paid accounts, there was a lot of uproar amongst the fandom based user base. They feared that paid accounts would look to TPTB like attempts to make money off fandom. They feared it would leave LiveJournal to getting threats of legal action from TPTB which would endanger their fannish communities. Such threats never really materialized and the community largely forgot about this discussion.

Ad sponsored accounts were later introduced, which became an issue when a conservative group threatened to tell companies that their ads would be appearing on pages containing certain questionable material, largely fanfiction involving incest and underage characters, and resulted in the sudden deletion of five hundred journals and communities.

MediaMiner.Org

MediaMiner.Org pays for its operating cost in two ways. The owners and maintainers pay for the site hosting out of their own pocket. The rest is funded through the sale of merchandise through their CafePress store.

RockFic

RockFic is funded in three ways. First, the maintainer pays the costs out of her own pocket. Second, the site requires a $2 fee in order to read the material. This is intended more as an age check though, rather than as a way to fund the site. Third, the site funded through the sale of some books on RockFic Press.

Soup Fiction

Soup Fiction was paid for out of pocket. The archivists tried to solicit users for donations but were unsuccessful. The lack of funding due to rapid growth were one of the contributing factors in the site's demise.

Archives and Legal Threats

For the most part, fan fiction archives have faced very few legal threats. On the rare occassion when threats are issued, most fan fiction archivists chose to comply with the requests. No fan fiction archivist has ever sold a user "down the river" to the extent that the fan faced legal action in a court of law. No archivist has ever gone to court over the material.

Below is a brief look at some of the legal threats that fan fiction archives have had to deal with.

In 1997, a Dragons of Pern fan fiction site received a cease and desist letter from Anne McCaffrey's legal representatives. This was largely because the site had not complied with a licensing policy for people who wished to write fan fiction in her universe.

MCStories.Com, an adult erotica archive which hosted fan fiction, received a cease and desist letter in 1998 from Warner Brothers and DC Comics related fan fiction on the site.

In 1999, Anne Rice threatened a number of fans with legal action. This was followed up with cease and desist letters being sent to fan fiction sites and, in 2000, a personal statement being published on her website saying that she was hurt by people writing fan fiction based on materials. This all culminated in 2001 with FanFiction.Net receiving a cease and desist letter. FanFiction.Net complied with the letter and removed the disputed materials.

On March 13, 2003, FanDomination.Net received a legal threat for materials pertaining to Andy Pettite, a baseball player. The letter accused the site of libel. The archive responded by putting site-generated disclaimers on every story. It also removed the stories in question.

On November 23, 2003, Duck's Fan Fiction Archive, a Buffy: The Vampire Slayer fan fiction archive, received a cease and desist letter. [2] There was some controversy regarding this as the show's creator had been an avid supporter of fan related activity in his fandoms.

The Caroline in the City fan fiction community, though small, was not spared from receiving legal threats. One fan fiction site received a cease and desist letter from CBS in 2004. (Chilling Effects) This letter helped foster the idea that CBS was not a fan friendly network. This was confirmed with their meddling in the CSI fandom in 2007.

That same year, in 2004, sg1archive.com, a Stargate fan fiction archive, received a cease and desist letter.

In 2004, adultfanfiction.net received a request to remove certain fanfiction for a member of The Backstreet Boys. The stories contained the member having underaged relations, thus resulting in the new TOS rule to ban all stories with real person underage relations on that site.

In 2005, a member of the fan fiction community received a cease and desist letter from Ohio State University for her NCAA Ohio State University women's basketball femslash. The fan was also kicked out of the Rebounders, the Ohio State University Buckeye's booster club. The university informed the NCAA of her actions. [3]

In October 2005, threat of legal action from CTV/19 Entertainment resulted in suspension of several Canadian Idol character LiveJournals from the LiveJournal community must_be_pop RPG. Many stories on ci_slash were locked by as a result. It should be noted that these were sent to LiveJournal communities and not to fan fiction archives like FanWorks.Org, FanDomination.Net and AdultFanFiction.Net which hosted this material.

In addition to legal threats which are fandom specific, there have been a number of general cease and desist letters. These targeted multiple sites or were unrelated and yet had an impact on fandom. In 2005, the Motion Picture Association of America sent cease and desist letters to fan fiction sites for using their ratings system. The same year, German lyric sites received a cease and desist letter for every song where they have lyrics up. While no German fan fic sites received these letters, backlash occurred and sites like FanFiction.Net took steps to ban songfic.

On the whole, archivists of Real Person Fic have had fewer legal run ins than people who host fan fiction based on books and media fandom related properts. Adult material and trademark violations were the biggest reasons for being contacted, with a request by the creators to remove the material.

Archive Management

AdultFanFiction.Net

Founded by Ayla in 2002. Beth and Apollo were given joint ownership of AdultFanFiction.Net by Ayla in mid-2005 when she encountered serious real life issues and was unable to pay the bills for a while. In September of 2005, Beth was replaced with Jaxxy as co-owner. In late 2005, early 2006, Apollo disappeared, leaving Jaxxy as sole owner of the site. In mid 2007, Jaxxy disappeared for four months, due to personal issues, the four head moderators stated Jaxxy was unreachable during this time. This is unconfirmable at this time. The four head moderators took over the site from Jaxxy from the site host Nexcess. In September 2007 Jaxxy returned, and brought accusations of money theft against one of the head mods; Jaxxy reappeared when she learned that the four head mods closed the Paypal donations account to put the donations into their control, instead of the control of the site owner. Jaxxxy was able to look in her account at Nexcess till late August when they locked her out of that account. When she regained control of the Nexcess account, all four head moderators quit on September 2nd 2007. This created significant turmoil that carried over to the rest of the staff. Eventually there were mass resignations over leadership conflicts, and the site is now functioning with an almost entirely new staff with a few notable holdovers.

FanDomination.Net

The site was founded by Michela Ecks. Jimmy Kuhn was brought on early as the head programmer. The site acquired a number of volunteers of varying levels. Some of these volunteers made demands that neither Michela, nor Jim were comfortable with. They were let go. Others were let go because Jimmy Kuhn did not program and implement the planned content management system. Jimmy Kuhn eventually locked Michela Ecks out of the ftp access, took away her administrative tools and cut off her money management role for the site. Through default, he became the sole owner and maintainer of the archive.

FanFicFan.com

This site was just opened in November 2007 and is run by Jacky and Chad of L-word.com and myFandoms.com. FanFicFan software allows users to create their own fan fic libraries and archives for either personal use or to be shared with other writers. Hosting and support is provided by myFandoms.com. Three ad spaces are designated to help generate revenue to pay for the hosting and maintenance.

FanFiction.Net

The site was created by Xing Li. He has had various levels of fan involvement over time. Initially, this included Sheryl Martin. It later morphed into larger staff which included Michela Ecks, Meimi, Steven Savage, Michelle Savage, Cairnsy, Flourish and others. Xing was never really an effective manager of people and task delegation was not always clear, with people having overlapping responsibilities. The problems led to a sort of self destruct on the staff in periods around 2000 and 2001. After those periods, Xing Li seemed to abandon having a staff and seemed to run the archive on his own. By 2003, when FanFiction.Net incorporated as an LLC, it appears that Xing Li hired paid staff to run the site, with Xing Li being the president and CEO of the company.

Fanfiction Portal

Fanfiction Portal is run by Beth Brownell and teched by Chana Kennington. Both are from Adultfanfiction.net, one a former owner and the current tech of the site. They are helped by a former moderator from Adultfanfiction.net. It is formatted similar to that of Livejournal, to where the author has their own page where they can upload their stories at, instead of being linked to an archive site. The author has total control to content of their stories, the site owner has no control of what the authors post on their page. The site hosts the following fandoms: LoTR, Bleach, Inuyasha and Harry Potter.

FanWorks.Org

The site is run by Joe. He is in charge of all aspects of the site.

Gundanium Line

The site is owned and maintained by Darthanne, and moderated by Misanagi and Ruth.

myFandoms.com

This site was opened in September 2006 and is run by Jacky and Chad of L-word.com. It is a multi-fandom site featuring fan fiction powered by their own software, FanFicFan, which originated on their L-word.com sites. This site has been mistaken for FanLib due to similarities in logo and colors. myFandoms.com claims to have been online first with their logo and colors. They emphasize they are a site run by two fans --for fans. They are not a corporate site like fan lib and have no investors, no advertising budget, etc.

RockFic

RockFic is run by Heather. Heather has a number of volunteers who help with very specific roles with the site. This can be looking to make sure that minors do not join, to monitoring stories for quality control purposes. She is the final voice for the site.


Archive Policies

Adult Material

During the late 1990s, the Communications Decency Act in the United States made many larger archives leery of hosting adult material. The sites had a fear of facing prosecution. As the legislation suffered constitutional issues, archiving it became less and less threatening an idea to many archivists.

Some archives originally had the material posted and accessible to anyone. External pressures made them put this material into places that required password protection. This was the case for the Restricted Section, a Harry Potter fan fiction site.

FanDomination.Net hosted adult material. While it was originally public and accessible to anyone, the issue with the Restricted Section resulted in Jim making it so users had to log in to view adult material.

FanFiction.Net hosted NC-17 material. In September 2002, the site banned the material. This was around the time that the site was receiving a lot of mentions in the media, some of which picked up on the younger user base and the presence of adult material.


Yaoi Germany's policy was a result of paternal intervention. In 2004, according to frogspace in the comments on a post on otw_news:

I don't know about any copyright related incidents with regard to fanfic, but Yaoi Germany had a run-in with the agency for the protection of minors (Jugendschutz) in 2004. I think a father complained about something his child read in the archive and they had to implement strict rules. That caused a bit of an uproar because most people who posted their fanfic there were minors and some of the offending stories were written by minors. In the end, they found a solution Jugendschutz agreed with. They banned pornography and explained in detail what would be considered pornographic, but they continued to allow sexually explicit material which can only be accessed between 9pm and 6am (UTC+1). You don't need to be logged in to access the stories. [4]

Animexx.de, a German site, according to frogspace in the comments on a post on otw_news:

I just checked Animexx.de (90,000 stories) and I think they are banning pornographic material too and have some kind of (not entirely secure?) age verification system for accessing adult material. [5]

FanFiktion.de, a German site, is dealing with similar issues. According to frogspace in the comments on a post on otw_news:

The owner of FanFiktion.de (40,000 stories) is currently discussing the possibility of allowing pornographic material if you are willing to pay for a secure method of age verification to get access. I'm not sure where he sees the line between adult and pornographic and I feel very, very uncomfortable with this approach. (Never mind that I don't trust his motives because he is proud that he's making money with his archive and adding a pornography corner feels like just another money making feature that is supposed to bring in the crowds.) [6]

FanLib hosts adult material but visitors need to register for an account to view the adult material and the adult stories are not counted in their story counts for a category on their category listing pages. Pornographic fanart is not allows.

BookFic

There are many professional authors who are not tolerant of fan fiction derived from their works. FanFiction.Net's policy has consistently been to remove the material upon request. FanDomination.Net's policy was not to archive the material unless they knew that an author had expressed a tolerance of such material derived from their works. Lois McMaster Bujold FanFic Archive was created only after having permission from Lois McMaster Bujold.

Chan

The legal issues surrounding this material have led several archives to be leery of this material. One of the most notable one incident involved SkyHawke which removed this material after realizing the Australian law deemed such material to be child pornography.

Potter Slash Archive banned chan in 2005 in order to comply with Australian laws.

Some archivists have chosen not to archive this material for moral reasons. They feel it is immoral to write fan fiction which they percieve as being the material as being explotive of children. Other archivists chose not to archive it because they work for employers who would find the content objectionable. Both views have been important in the Digimon, Harry Potter and Pokemon fandoms, fandoms where the central characters are minors.

Feedback/Reviews

Archives have had to decide how to implement feedback and review systems. Some archives relied on the reader e-mailing an author, encouraging authors to put their contact information in the header information. This was the case for fan fiction archives in the days before more complex scripting languages and availability of archiving programs. Two sites that used this method included Gossamer and Trekiverse.

FanDomination.Net opted for a private feedback system using sitemail. [7] The theory was that it would encourage more constructive feedback as such could be sent privately with out fear that fandom would support a poor writer by telling them to ignore harsh comments as not mattering.

FanFiction.Net chose to use a system of reviews based on Xing Li's experiences as a programmer who saw the guestbook method of feedback leaving. There was no complex decision process involved. The system of reviews was quickly adopted by many other sites and was integrated into both the Efiction and Storysite scripts.

Some archives created individual message boards for authors. This was the case for Fiction Alley. This model allowed for the reader and the author to interact and encouraged more discussion of a story. It sort of called back to the era of mailing lists where such interaction was more commonplace.

Some archives were not so much archives but message boards. This is the case for Lois & Clark Fanfic Message Boards which was a message board where people posted their stories.

Plagiarism

Various archives have had to figure out how to handle plagiarism issues.

FanFiction.Net originally investigated every claim. The claims were investigated by members of the staff who were part of fandom. No attention was paid to a person's position in fandom, which was why Cassandra Claire was banned. Plagiarism, as a blacklistable offense, was built into the site's terms of service, which was created in 2000. Later, as the site grew and claims became harder to investigate, the material tended to be just deleted with out any investigation.

FanWorks.Org investigates claims of plagiarism. The site maintainer attempts to do that in a timely and fair matter. The policy decision was later made that if a fandom became too abusive and too well known for their sheer volume of complaints, a fandom's stories would all be removed from the site. Such was the situation in early May 2007.

Fiction Alley chose to deal with plagiarism by requiring that the person who was plagiarized be the one required to contact the site to ask for the removal of a story. This meant that if a user noticed that a story was plagiarized, unless they were the person plagiarized, they could not complain about the material. This policy was developed in response to the Cassandra Claire/FanFiction.Net incident.

Quality Controls

Archives have had to chose if they want quality controls and to what extent they desire them. Some archives created submission policies. You have to meet the minimum in order to have your story archive. This generally involved properly formatted stories in the header information for the story.

FanDomination.Net originally proposed a set of quality controls in order to teach people to become better writers. [8] The goal was to provide readers with a higher quality product. These standards were shared with the community so that they would be aware of expectations.

FanFiction.Net originally had no quality controls. Later, after many user complaints, the site created minimal quality standards regarding formatting, grammar and spelling. The quality standards were enforced by user abuse complaints.

FanWorks.Org had no set of quality standards. The owner/maintainer has felt no need to implement this.

FicWad's quality standards were set by the limited invites of users. Only people who were perceived as being quality writers by their fellow writers were invited. Stories were rated so that users would not have to see stories below a certain quality rank as determined by fellow readers.

RockFic created a set of quality standards. They are described on the site as:

IV. Posting Stories
Rockfic.com has minimum standards that all submitted stories must meet. New members are on probation; in other words, the first stories they post will be reviewed by an administrator before being released to the site. These stories may be rejected completely, or the author may be asked to make some changes before a story will be released to the site. Once the author has demonstrated understanding of the minimum standards, the author will be taken off probation; any new posted stories will immediately be released to the site.
IV. Posting of Messages as Stories
The story archive is for stories. Posts to the story archive that are nothing but messages to your fans will be deleted as soon as they are found. Use the message board if you have an announcement to make.[9]

Rating Systems

In 2005, the MPAA sent several fan fiction archives cease and desist letters, alleging trademark infringement on the part of sites for using their ratings system. The sites included FanFiction.Net and Fiction Alley. As a result, several fan fiction archives including those and other archives like FanDomination.Net changed to their own archive created rating system.

Real Person Fic

During much of the 1990s, media fandom based archives refused to host Real Person Fic because of the percieved illegalities of the material as it pertained to libel and invasion of privacy. Some of this policy also resulted because the Big Name Fan structure was still mostly centered around the idea that BNFs were connected to people who produced a show, movie or wrote books. Those fans had a vested interest in not having fans write such material as a way of maintaining their own relationships with those creators. This no archival of Real Person Fic included most Star Trek and Babylon 5 fan fiction archives.

Archival policies regarding this material changed in some communities as a result of FanFiction.Net's inclusion and lack of legal threats regarding this material. It also changed because a number of RPF communities that had existed in isolation came in to greater contact with media fandom. This included BandFic communities, sportsfic communities and ActorFic communities.

During the late 1990s and early 2000s, there was a lot of debate amongst archivists regarding the legality of this material and some new sites were created and policies were changed. The biggest and most visible proponents in the discussion could be found on the mailing list FFN-Slashers-Unite.

Sites that are known for their tolerance of, and declaration that RPF is legal and arguably more legal than media fandom based fic include RockFic, FanWorks.Org and FanDomination.Net. FanDomination.Net's embrace of this material is best expressed in the site's Terms of Service which says:

Statement of Ethics
Fandomination.net was founded based on a set principle of ethics. This affects to a degree the material that we allow. It is our belief that if a professional author objects to people playing in their universe and playing with their characters that we, as fan fiction writers, should respect those wishes. Therefore, fandomination.net does not and will not host fan fiction where the policy of the author is not known or where the author has specifically stated that they will not tolerate fan fiction. It is our belief that people should not be represented in stories about themselves if they do not desire to be in them, or if they do not wish to the object of other people?s fantasies. Therefore, fandomination.net will not host categories for stories where the actors and other celebrities themselves have hinted that they would be offended or upset over. fandomination.net believes that because of the multi-authored nature of television shows, movies, and video games, the rules that apply to an individual do not necessarily apply to a group unless that group?s members have said specifically no. For this reason, we host fan fiction based on the aforementioned mediums. fandomination.net believes that MSTs are a form of parody with no libelous intent. As such, we believe that MSTs are okay to post; however, if a story is a deliberate and intentional slam at the author outside acceptable normal boundaries with material that could be considered libelous, we will feel obligated to remove those stories from fandomination.net. We believe that freedom of speech is an ideal to be applauded but that in the practical realities of the real world, it is not feasible to run a site like this following that ideal. As such, we feel ethically bound to delete stories that violate the terms of service, our statement of ethics, and our statements of legal understanding and feel ethical in deleting stories from our site because of quality issues and because the site is fundamentally ours.
Statement of Legal Understanding
It is our belief that all the material that is hosted on our site is legal. For material such as RPS, there are several legal precedents which lead us to believe in its legality. One of those cases is Comedy III Productions, Inc. (Three Stooges) v. Gary Saderup, Inc. which says that celebrity likeness can be used so long as the celebrity?s likeness is embellished upon, and the depiction of the celebrity is not completely accurate. The other precedent for material such as RPS is Hustler Magazine, Inc. et al. v. Jerry Falwell which has ruled that parodies involving famous people are perfectly and totally legal under the United States Constitution. We believe that fan fiction is legal because it is a form of parody or protected under academic fair use as a form of criticism of the source material. We believe that fan fiction featuring minors is most probably legal in most of the United States but concede that jurisdictional problems may cause this material to be illegal in some areas. It is our belief that if this material were to be brought to a court of law, first amendment protections would probably protect this material. Some state laws regarding pornography are like the law in Illinois which requires the visual depiction of real children in real sex acts. That is to say, writing about fictional minor characters having sex is legal as they are not real and the stories are not pictures, rather they are fictional written descriptions. It is our belief that MSTs are legal because they are a form of parody and satire. If we are shown compelling legal evidence to the other side of the legality of this material, we will consider removing the material. If you are a copyright owner and wish to have material related to your copyright removed, we will attempt to comply. [10]

RockFic expresses a similar legal understanding when it states:

Rockfic.com is in no way associated with any band listed on this website. Rockfic.com is entertainment. All stories contained on this site are fictional, which means that while the characters may be loosely based on the public personas of real people, the stories themselves are completely untrue and are in no way meant to reflect the private lives, actual practices, or activities of any persons named. Rockfic.com will remove a work of fiction if an individual named within requests its removal. [11]

During the late 1990s, a number of archives were hosted on Slash City which was a slash friendly server run by people in fandom. If an archive chose to be located on their server, the archive could not host Real Person Fic because it was expressly prohibited.

SongFic

In April 2005, several German record labels sent cease and desist letters to German websites. [12][13][14] The letters demanded the removal of all song lyrics from their sites and asked for €1600,57 remuneration for every song which had the lyrics listed. In response to this, several archives like FanFiction.Net disallowed SongFic in order to be liable to similar threats.

Underage Users

Minors have been an issue for many fan fiction archivists, especially those who are considering hosting adult material.

FanFiction.Net has always allowed minors to access the site and has not done age checks. They did, at one point, users to click a box to verify their age before accessing adult material.

RockFic's policy has been, since day one, to not allow minors to access the site. They maintain this with do diligence. The administrators for the site research new users, look around to verify the new users it not a minor trying to gain access to the site. Later, they added a requirement of paying $2 a year in order to gain access to the site. This also helped to keep minors away from the site.

User attitudes toward archive administrators

FanDomination.Net

When the site was created, it orginally had some quality control issues and removed stories that were poorly written. Users were told why. This led to some rather scathing and offensive e-mails and site mails being sent to administrators by users who thought that any such control was an infringement on their freedom of speech and that their stories were well written. A number of users implied that the content managers were hacks who could not write.

When the site added advertisements, users sent abusive e-mails to Jim, who they claimed should pay all the costs out of pocket. They had no obligation to provide him anything and had the right to ad free fan fiction.

FanFiction.Net

Xing Li was the repeated subject of death threats via e-mail for changes in archive policy during the late 1990s. The death threats and other associated threats came from people on both sides of a position.

FanWorks.Org

Joe, like many a fan fiction archivist, has occassionally had to deal with user crankiness from people who refuse to read instructions on how to upload fan fiction.

FicWad

FicWad administrators had to deal with some parts of LiveJournal fandom not liking them because they excluded people in trying to maintain an archive with higher quality stories.

RockFic

RockFic administrators have had to deal with abuse from visitors who were minors who were denied access to materials because of their age.

SkyHawke

After the archive removed Chan, users tried to upload stories in violation of the rules. They also sent the archivists cranky e-mails.

Archive Programming

Archives are programmed in several different ways and ultimately depend on the archivist involved. Prior to the popularization of, creation of and reduction in cost of running servers which run such programming languages as php, Cold Fusion, and ASP, most archives were updated by hand, using html or cgi. The sites that did use scripts were often ones written by programmers involved in fandom. It wasn't until 2000 that automated scripts that were more open and accessible to the public began to immerge.

Below is information on various scripts and on programming design used by various sites.

EFiction

EFiction was the first popular option script which made it easy for people to create their own automated fan fiction archives. A list of sites using this software can be found on Efiction.

FanDomination.Net

FanDomination.Net was originally programmed by Jimmy Kuhn] and losely based on an implementation plan by Michela Ecks which was never fully implemented. [15] The database used was MySQL as the other popular option at the time was Microsoft Access which was not flexible enough. The site was programmed using Cold Fusion was it was viewed as more secure and that was Jimmy Kuhn]'s speciality.

The site faced some issues on its original server because the programming was not initially built for large amounts of traffic. The code took up too many system resources to run. Jim had to spend a lot of time retooling the site, which was a contributing factor in the site not having the intended features programmed.

FanFicFan.com

FanFicFan is touted to be a super-simple, free, fan fic library/archive script available to all fan fic writers and fan sites. It can be used in a basic version of just uploading a banner and selecting a color, or it can be completely embedded within a page template and site owners can use their own domain names. Help is offered by the site admins. Technical Description: FanFicFan was developed using PHP and MySQL as the language and RDBMS of choice. The software was written using MVC methodology and architecture via the CodeIgniter framework (open source - http://www.codeigniter.com). The software was written to support a distributed model to allow for certain users to be able to download and install the software on their own servers. The core of the software is encoded using Zend Guard (http://www.zend.com)to protect FanFicFan's intellectual interests. But, the front-end "views" are available for customization and are not encoded.

FanFiction.Net

FanFiction.Net was originally programmed using Cold Fusion. The site switched over to php in 2002. The decision to use Cold Fusion was because that was what Xing Li knew how to program in and because he had a Cold Fusion server available to host the archive because of his work.

Fiction Alley

Fiction Alley's programming was based on scripts which were publicly available. These scripts were then modded and integrated by the programmers who assisted with the site. They used php and mySQL. People who assisted with the programming were required to sign non-disclosure statements regarding the exact infrastructure of the site.

myFandoms.com

myFandoms.com is a free multifandom archive with extensive search and reader/writers tools. It was developed using PHP and MySQL as the language and RDBMS of choice. The software was written using MVC methodology and architecture via the CodeIgniter framework (open source - http://www.codeigniter.com).

Soup Fiction

Soup Fiction was a short lived automated multifandom fan fiction archive. It was run by several male high school students who programmed the site in 2002 using customed coded the site and used a MySQL database.

Storyline

Storyline is a script similar to Efiction and is used to power such sites as AdultFanfiction.Net, Fanfiction Now, and Twisting the Hellmouth. It is php based and was created in 2002 by IO Designs.

Archive Closings

Both Soup Fiction and e-fiction.net closed because of two reasons: Money and hacking. Both had inconsistent funding. Both utilized open source scripts and were eventually hacked to the point of no return.

In early October 2007, the archivist for The NCIS Fanfic Archive determined that "here are just far too many visitors for the server to be able to cope and the archivist is unable to keep it going." [16]

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